International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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Original Research Articles                      Volume : 7, Issue:7, July, 2018

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(7): 1132-1143

Neuro Endocrine Strategies during Adaptation to Stress
A. Bhimte1*, N. Thakur1, V.P. Maurya2, B. Balamurugan3 and G. Singh2
1Animal Physiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India
2Division of Physiology and Climatology
3Division of Animal Reproduction, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar- 243122, U.P., India
*Corresponding author

The survival and well-being of all species requires appropriate physiological responses to environmental and homeostatic challenges. Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the “stress response” or “stress cascade.” A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops, so that the respective contribution of the neuroendocrine and autonomic systems is tuned in accordance with stressor modality or intensity. Limbic regions that are responsible for regulating stress responses intersect with circuits that are responsible for memory and reward, providing a means to tailor the stress response with respect to prior experience and anticipated outcomes.

Keywords: Neuro endocrine strategies, Stress adaptation, Stress cascade

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How to cite this article:

Bhimte, A., N. Thakur, V.P. Maurya, B. Balamurugan and Singh, G. 2018. Neuro Endocrine Strategies During Adaptation to Stress.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(7): 1132-1143. doi:
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