International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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Original Research Articles                      Volume : 7, Issue:7, July, 2018

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(7): 890-901

Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Mutation Frequency and Plasmid Extraction and Transformation of Antibiotic resistant bacterial isolate from Aquatic Environment
Hemanta Pokhrel*, Salini Gopi, Devika Pillai, C.G. Rakesh and K.G. Sneha
Centre for Aquatic Animal Health Management, School of Aquaculture and Biotechnology Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, India
*Corresponding author

The present study is done to determine the lowest concentration of the assayed antimicrobial agent (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC) that, under defined test conditions, inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium. MIC values are also used to determine susceptibilities of bacteria to drugs and also to evaluate the activity of new antimicrobial agents, mutation frequency the several factors that affect the appearance and spread of acquired antibiotic resistance and plasmid extraction and transformation demonstrates that conjugation and transfer of plasmids, a phenomenon that belongs to the environment and can occur between bacterial strains of human, animal, and fish origins that are unrelated either evolutionarily or ecologically even in the absence of antibiotics. MIC concentration in the study was found to be in the higher side. For maximum number of strains MIC for ampicillin ranged from 2 to 64 µg with maximum at 64 µg shown by Kluyvera intermedia and minimum 2 µg shown by various strains like Acinetobacter johnsonii, Edwarsiella spp and Pseudomonas alcaligenes. Mutation frequency was also done in order to determine the rate at which the isolates mutate to acquire resistance for a particular antibiotic. The results indicate that bacteria can mutate and develop resistance to an antibiotic on prolonged exposure. Plasmid extraction and transformation process was also performed in order to understand the process of resistance transformation. One of the major mechanisms of transfer of AMR was found to be plasmid mediated.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Mutation, Plasmid transfermation, Conjugation

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How to cite this article:

Hemanta Pokhrel, Salini Gopi, Devika Pillai, C.G. Rakesh and Sneha, K.G. 2018. Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Mutation Frequency and Plasmid extraction and Transformation of Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolate from Aquatic Environment.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(7): 890-901. doi:
Copyright: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.