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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2016.5(6): 247-257
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.506.028


Plant and Pathogens: Pathogen Recognision, Invasion and Plant Defense Mechanism
Sauban Musa Jibril1, Bello Hassan Jakada1*, Ahmad Shehu Kutama2 and Harisu Yunusa Umar1
1Faculty of Applied Sciences, Jodhpur National University, India
2Federal University, Dutse, Nigeria
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

A plant pathogen is an organism or a virus that can inhabit and survive on plants and can compromise the health of the plant causing disease symptoms. Plant pathogens may be fungi, bacteria, viruses or nematodes, covering different levels of host specificity, some with a broad host range, others host species specific. Fungi belong to eukaryote group of organisms which also includes moulds, yeast and mushrooms. Most of the over 100,000 species of fungi are saprophytes. However, over 20,000 species of fungi are parasites and cause disease in crops and plants, Fungi can cause general or localized signs and/or symptoms. In the majority of cases, fungal infections cause general necrosis of host tissue and often cause stunting, distortions and abnormal changes in plant tissue and organs. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, generally ranging from 1-2 Ám in size that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. There are around 200 species of phytopathogenic bacteria and almost all of them are parasites within the plant, on its surface, in plant debris or in the soil as saprophytes. They include leaf spots, blights, wilts, scabs, cankers and soft rots of roots, storage organs and fruit, and overgrowth. Viruses are infectious pathogens that are too small to be seen with a light microscope, but despite their small size they can cause chaos. The simplest viruses are composed of a small piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. All viruses are obligate parasites that depend on the cellular machinery of their hosts to reproduce. Viruses are not active outside of their hosts, and this has led some people to suggest that they are not alive and most viruses infect only one type of host. Most plant viruses are actively transmitted from infected to healthy plants by a living organism called a vector. Plant-feeding arthropods, nematodes and plant-parasitic fungi are the major types of vector organisms for plant viruses. Nematodes are roundworms, similar to the animal parasites encountered in livestock and pets. Soil- dwelling nematodes are both good guys and bad guys in crop production. Plant-pathogenic nematodes feed only on plants; in fact, they cannot sustain themselves on anything else. When their numbers increase to high levels, they can severely injure or kill plants, especially seedlings. In lower, more typical numbers, they can cause yield losses without causing obvious symptoms, and they can be involved in disease interactions with other pathogens, including viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Plant-parasitic nematodes range from 250 um to 12 mm in length, averaging 1 mm, to about 15-35 um in width. The ability of plants to respond to challenge by potential pathogens implies that plants recognise these potential pathogens as 'non-self. Plants defend themselves against pathogens by a combination of weapons termed as host resistsnce from two arsenals: (1) structural characteristics that act as physical barriers and inhibit the pathogen from gaining entrance and spreading through the plant and (2) biochemical reactions that take place in the cells and tissues of the plant and produce substances that are either toxic to the pathogen or create conditions that inhibit growth of the pathogen in the plant.


Keywords: Plant Pathogens, Fungi,Bacteria,Virus,Nematodes, Pathogen Recognition,Plant Defense Mechanism and Host Defenses.
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How to cite this article:

Sauban Musa Jibril, Bello Hassan Jakada, Ahmad Shehu Kutama and Harisu Yunusa Umar. 2016. Plant and Pathogens: Pathogen Recognision, Invasion and Plant Defense Mechanism. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 5(6): 247-257. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.506.028