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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2017.6(7): 1601-1606
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.607.193


Effect of Shifting Animals from Groups on their Social Relationship and Performance
Deepandita Barman, Kotresh Prasad*, Sushil Kumar, Manish Ahirwar, Mayamitta Saini and M.L. Kamboj
Livestock Production and Management, ICAR-NDRI, Haryana- 132001
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Domestic animals are social creatures, established social hierarchical order with certain flocking instinct. Shifting causes re-establishment of hierarchical order in a new environment which aggravates behavioral patterns and is highly stressful to the livestock. The criteria before shifting animals from one group should be confirmation of pregnancy, level of milk production, BCS, age, time (afternoon or early evening milking to minimize social disruption), labour, nutritional and social implications. Moving large numbers of animals at one time results in less fighting and social disruption in the group. The number of aggressive encounters can be reduced by housing cows in adjacent lots permitting limited close proximity and physical contact in free-stall barn designs. Shifting animals from different sources in high stocking density aggravates the incidence of fighting, vocalization, tension, anxiety, threat, butting, escape from group and stress. Animals after shifting spent less time in lying (10%) than the normal environment (65%) with reduced rumination, increased urination and defecation. Social pressure in a new group is due to different feed, milker and milking time which lead to less reaction to external stimuli, poor animal welfare and quality product problems. There is reduction in growth rate and milk production by 100 g/d and 2.5 to 5.0%, respectively due to decrease in eating time and increase in number of confrontations. The social impacts of regrouping last about minimum 7 days with potentially significant reduction in DMI and milk production. Young animal loss more body weight than older because of the fewer reserves of body fat and greater water content of relative to body weight. The stress induced by handling during shifting activated the sympathetic nervous system causes dysfunction of the pituitary, adrenal and thyroid glands thereby elevating the level of cortisol. Therefore, handlers should be well trained to reduce fear with minimum shifting period performed when necessary.


Keywords: Animals from Groups on their Social Relationship, Domestic animals.
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How to cite this article:

Deepandita Barman, Kotresh Prasad, Sushil Kumar, Manish Ahirwar, Mayamitta Saini and Kamboj, M.L. 2017. Effect of Shifting Animals from Groups on their Social Relationship and Performance.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(7): 1601-1606. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.607.193