International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2022 - IJCMAS--ICV 2022: 95.28 For more details click here
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS) : NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020) [Effective from January 1, 2020] For more details click here

Login as a Reviewer

See Guidelines to Authors
Current Issues
Download Publication Certificate

Original Research Articles                      Volume : 13, Issue:3, March, 2024

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2024.13(3): 51-63

Natural Phenolics Exhibit Strong Antimicrobial activity against Clinical Isolates Obtained from Patients of Urinary Tract Infection
Shahbaz Alam1, Neelam Singh2*, Nashra Afaq3 and Chayanika Putatunda1
1Department of Microbiology, Om Sterling Global University, NH-52 Hisar- Chandigarh Road Hisar, Haryana- 125001, India
2Department of Microbiology, Saaii College of Medical Science and Technology, Kanpur- 209203, India
3Rama Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Mandhana, Kanpur, India
*Corresponding author

A Comprehensive study of the Antimicrobial efficacy of Gallic acid and Tannic acid on the clinical isolates of the UTI microflora as a promising component. This was a Cross sectional study carried out in the Department of Microbiology at Om Sterling Global University, Hisar, Haryana, India for a period of 1 year i.e, between June 2022 to June 2023 upon pathogenic bacteria from urine samples of UTI patients visiting the New Reliable Path labs, Qurban Road, Chandwara, Muzaffarpur (Bihar), India. A total of 350 freshly voided midstream urine samples from the people whose initial routine urine tests were positive for pus cells and albumin were collected in a sterile wide mouth container. The Gallic acid (CAS No 5995-86-8, product code 27645) and tannic acid (CAS No. 1401-55-4, product code 403040) standards were purchased from Merck, St. Louis, MO, USA where the stock solutions of both gallic acid and tannic acid were prepared by dissolving 50 mg of the compound in 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 10% DMSO, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The MICs and MBCs were determined performing broth dilution. In the present study it was observed that the tannic acid (T.A.) was more effective as compared to the gallic acid (G.A.). The MIC value of 225±1.06 was observed for T.A. and 1750±18.66 for G.A. against E coli. The lowest MIC of tannic acid was observed for Staphylococcus saprophyticus 90±1.06 followed by Acinetobacter baumannii with 125±3.14 and highest for Proteus vulgaris375±6.14. In case of gallic acid the lowest MIC was recorded for Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 600±8.66 followed by citrobacter freundii with 750 ±3.14 and the maximum was observed for Klebsiella pneumoniae observed 2050 ±1.21. Tannic acid can serve as a promising candidate for treating (multi drug resistant) MDR Urinary Tract Infections. It was also found that the drugs with lower MIC scores are more effective antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: AST, phytochemicals Secondary metabolites, MIC, Antimicrobial resistance, UTI, phenolics, phytochemicals


Andolfi, C.; Bloodworth, J. C.; Papachristos, A.; Sweis, R.F. The Urinary Microbiome and Bladder Cancer: Susceptibility and Immune Responsiveness. Bladder Cancer 2020, 6, 225–235. (CrossRef) (PubMed)

Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators (2022) Antimicrobial Resistance Collaborators. Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: A systematic analysis. Lancet, 399(10325):629–655.

Bader, M.S.; Loeb, M.; Leto, D.; Brooks, A.A. (2020) Treatment of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance and new antimicrobial agents. Postgrad. Med.132:234–250.

Bano, K., Khan, J., Begum, H., Munir, S., Akbar, N., Ansari, J.A., Anees M.,(2012) Patterns of antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial pathogens among urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Patients in a Pakistani Population. African Journal of Microbiol. Res. ^(2):414-420.

Bergamin, PA, Kiosoglous, A. J. (2017) Non-surgical management of recurrent urinary tract infections in women, Transl Androl Urol ;6(Suppl 2):S142-S152

Cheesbrough, M., “District Laboratories Manual for Tro- pical Countries,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.

Cheesbrough, M.,“Medical Laboratories Manual for Tropical Countries,” Butterworth-Heinemann, Cambridge, 2002.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (2022) 28th ed. M100. Wayne: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); 2022. p. 38.

CLSI, (2016). Performance standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 18th Informational Supplement. M100-S18. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Delzell Jr J E and  Lefevre, M L. (2000) Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician.61(3):713-21.

Díaz-Gomez, R., L opez-Solís, R., Obreque-Slier, E., & Toledo-Araya, H. (2013). Comparative antibacterial effect of gallic acid and catechin against Helicobacter pylori. LWT e Food Science and Technology, 54, 331-335.

Didelot, X. & Pouwels, K. B. Machine-learning-assisted selection of antibiotic prescription. Nat. Med. 25, 1033–1034 (2019).

Engel   J D, A J Schaeffer. Evaluation of and antimicrobial therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections in women. J D Engel et al., Urol Clin North Am. 1998 ;25(4):685-701.

Erb, A., Stürmer, T., Marre, R. et al., Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli: overview of geographical, temporal, and methodological variations. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26, 83–90 (2007).

Fowler JE Jr, Latta R, Stamey TA. (1977) Studies of introital colonization in women with recurrent urinary infections. VIII. The role of bacterial interference. J Urol;118: 296-8.

Foxman, B. (2002) Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs.Am J Med.. 2002 ;113 Suppl 1A:5S-13S.

Gastmeier P. Nosocomial urinary tract infection: Many unresolved questions. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001;7:521-522.

Gilliam M, MD; Kistler C, Truoccolo D, Schuchter K (Developed by) (2023) Carolina Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Guideline-Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis & Management in Adolescents & Adults at UNC Medical Center. Carolina Antimicrobial Stewardship Program; Approved by UNCMC Anti-infective P&T Subcommittee. May 2023; page 1-6.

Grigoryan, L.; Mulgirigama, A.; Powell, M.; Schmiemann, G. The emotional impact of urinary tract infections in women: A qualitative analysis. BMC Women’s Health 2022, 22, 182. (CrossRef)

Habak, P.and Griggs, R.P.Jr., (2023) Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy. Treasure Island (FL) StatPearls Publishing 2024 (Online)

Harmanli,O.H., Cheng, G.Y., Nyirjesy, P., Chatwani, A., Gauchan J.P., (2000) Obstet Gynecol. Urinary tract infections in women with bacterial vaginosis.. 2000 ; 95(5):710-712.

Head, KA (2008) Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract. Altern Med Rev. 2008 ;13(3):227-44.

Hunt BC, Brix V, Vath J, Guterman BL, Taddei SM, Learman BS, Brauer AL, Shen S, Qu J, Armbruster CE. Metabolic interplay between Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis facilitates polymicrobial biofilm formation and invasive disease. bioRxiv (Preprint). 2023 Apr 24:2023.03.17.533237.   

Hvidberg, H., Struve C, Krogfelt KA, Christensen N, Rasmussen SN, Frimodt-Møller N. (2000) Development of a long-term ascending urinary tract infection mouse model for antibiotic treatment studies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 ;44(1):156-63.

Janifer J, Geethalakshmi S, Satyavani K, Viswanathan V. Prevalence of lower urinary tract infection in South Indian type 2 diabetic subjects. Indian J Nephrol. 2009 Jul;19(3):107-11.   

Kang C., Kim J., Park D. W., et al., (2018) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections. Infection & Chemotherapy. 50(1):67–100.   

Khan R, Islam B, Akram M, Shakil S, Ahmad A, Ali SM, Siddiqui M, Kha AU.(2009) Antimicrobial Activity of Five Herbal Extracts Against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) Strains of Bacteria and Fungus of Clinical Origin 2009 Molecules; 14(2): 586–597. Published online 2009 Feb 4.  

Kucheria, R., P Dasgupta, S Sacks, M Khan, and N Sheerin. Urinary tract infections: new insights into a common problem. Postgrad Med J. 2005; 81(952): 83–86.

Lee DS, Lee SJ, Choe HS (2018) Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection by Escherichia coli in the Era of Antibiotic Resistance. Biomed Res Int.  

Li Y, Kumar S, Zhang L, Wu H.(2022) Klebsiella pneumonia and Its Antibiotic Resistance: A Bibliometric Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 6;2022:1668789.  

Li, X.; Fan, H.; Zi, H.; Hu, H.; Li, B.; Huang, J.; Luo, P.; Zeng, X. (2022) Global and Regional Burden of Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance in Urinary Tract Infections in 2019. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2817.

Mohapatra,, Panigrahy, R., Vibhor Tak3, Shwetha J. V., Sneha K. C., Susmita Chaudhuri, Swati Pundir, S., Kocher, D., Gautam H., Sood S., Das, B.K., Kapil, A., Hari, P., Kumar, A., Kumari, R., Kalaivani M., Ambica R., Salve, H.R., Malhotra, S., and Mohapatra, S.K. (2022) Prevalence and resistance pattern of uropathogens from community settings of different regions: an experience from India. Access Microbiology. 4:000321.

Moore EE, Hawes, SE, Scholes D, Boyko EJ, Hughes, JP, Fihn SD (2008) Sexual Intercourse and Risk of Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection in Post-Menopausal Women J Gen Intern Med 23(5):595–9

Patel, H.B., Soni, S.T., Bhagyalaxmi, A., and  Patel N.M. (2019) Causitive agents of urinary tract infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at a referral center in Western India: An audit to help clinicians prevent antibiotic misuse. J Family Med Prim Care. 8(1): 154–159.  

Paul R. State of the Globe: Rising Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogens in Urinary Tract Infection. J Glob Infect Dis. 2018 Jul-Sep;10(3):117-118.  

Qiao LD, Chen S, Yang Y, Zhang K, Zheng B, Guo HF, Yang B, Niu YJ, Wang Y, Shi BK, Yang WM, Zhao XK, Gao XF, Chen M, Tian Y. Characteristics of urinary tract infection pathogens and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in China: data from a multicenter study. BMJ Open. 2013 Dec 13;3(12):e004152.   

Rasheed MU, Thajuddin N, Ahamed P, Teklemariam Z, Jamil K. Antimicrobial drug resistance in strains of Escherichia coli isolated from food sources. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014 Jul-Aug;56(4):341-6.

Rodr?guez Vaquero MJ, Alberto MR, Manca de Nadra MC. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines, 2007; Food Control 18: 93–101

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.R.and Maniatis, T., (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manaual (2nd Ed.) Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p.2028.

Schaeffer, AJ (2002) New concepts in the pathogenesis of Urinary tract infections, Urologic Clinics, 29(1): 241-250

Shaifali I, Gupta U, Mahmood SE, Ahmad J. (2023) Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Urinary Pathogens in Female Outpatients. North American Journal of Medical Sciences; 4(4):163-69

Sharami S H,Afrakhteh M, Shakiba M. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (2007) Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. J Obstet Gynaecol. 27(3):252-4.   

Sihra, N.; Goodman, A.; Zakri, R.; Sahai, A.; Malde, S. (2018) Nonantibiotic prevention and management of recurrent urinary tract infection. Nat. Rev. Urol. 15:750–776.

Stamm, WE, Norrby, SR., (2001) Urinary Tract Infections: Disease Panorama and Challenges. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 183(1): S1–S4.

Steven L. Chang, MD, Linda D. Shortliffe, MDT. (2006) Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections, Pediatr Clin N Am.; 53: 379 – 400.

Stevens, K.A., Sheldon, N.A., Klapes, B.W., & Klaenhammer, T.R., (1991) Antimicrobial Action of Nisin against Salmonella typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide Applied And Environmental Microbiology, May 1992, p. 1786-1788 Vol. 58, No. 5.

Usman JG, Sodipo OA, Sandabe UK (2014) In vitro antimicrobial activity of Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. Ex. Naudin fruit extracts against Salmonella gallinarum. Int J Phytomed 6(2):268–274.

Wang, W., Cao, J.,Yang, J., Niu, X., Liu, X., Zhai, Y.,Qiang, C.(16 AUTHORS), Jianhong Zhao 2022 Antimicrobial Activity of Tannic Acid In Vitro and Its Protective Effect on Mice against Clostridioides difficile. Bacteriology.

Weinstein M. P.,Towns, ML, Quartey, SM, Mirrett, S., Reimer, LG, Parmigiani, G.,Reller, B., (1997) The Clinical Significance of Positive Blood Cultures in the 1990s: A Prospective Comprehensive Evaluation of the Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Outcome of Bacteremia and Fungemia in Adults, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 24(4):584-602,

Yelin, I. et al., Personal clinical history predicts antibiotic resistance of urinary tract infections. Nat. Med. 25, 1143–1152 (2019)

Download this article as Download

How to cite this article:

Shahbaz Alam, Neelam Singh, Nashra Afaq and Chayanika Putatunda. 2024. Natural Phenolics Exhibit Strong Antimicrobial Activity Against Clinical Isolates Obtained from Patients of Urinary Tract Infection.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 13(3): 51-63. doi:
Copyright: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.