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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39 For more details click here
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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Original Research Articles

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(4): 2559-2582
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.704.293


Prevalence of Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Ochratoxin A Residues in Animal Feeds and Modulation of Their Toxic Effects by Glutathione
Hassan A. Atef1, Howayda M. El-Shafei1, Mogda K. Mansour2, Naglaa M. Al Kalamawy3, Nour El-Houda Y. Hassan4 and A.I. Lashin5
1Department of Mycology
2Department of Biochemistry
3Department of Pathology, Dokki, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Agriculture Research Centre (ARC), Giza, Egypt
4Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni Suef Univ., Egypt
5Shebin El Kom Suburban Lab. - Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Agriculture Research Centre (ARC), Giza, Egypt
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in animal feeds. The efficacy of an antioxidant material glutathione (GSH) on ochratoxicated rats was evaluated. Our investigation revealed that, the most predominant isolated molds from the examined animal feed samples were A. ochraceous and A. niger that recovered from (30% and 25%) of drees (hay) samples, respectively. The most ochratoxigenic strains was A.niger that recovered from Drees (hay) and yellow corn was at the mean level of (20±1.75 mg/kg) and (13.34±6.5 mg/kg), respectively. The maximum level of ochratoxin residues detected in yellow corn at a mean level of (9.84±5.33 µg/kg) and the minimum level was detected in rice straw at a mean level of (1.88±0.44 µg/kg). Significant increase in serum ALT and AST activities and urea level, decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin levels and corresponding reduction of A:G ratio were observed in ochratoxicated rats, in addition to an increase in MDA level. The measurement of tumor marker of liver (alfa-feto-protein) (AFP) showed significant increase among ochratoxicated group and it could be concluded that OTA had a hepatic genotoxic effect (that correlated with activation of p53 transcription). Ochratoxin A decreased serum iron, TIBC and transferrin percentage. GSH increased the normal tissue defense capability and suppressing toxicity invasion, leading to an improvement in biochemical parameter. At cellular level; cytochrome-c dependent, capase-3 apoptotic pathway was incriminated in ochratoxiccosis. Glutathione can restore the DNA integrity (in ochratoxicated rats) as indicated by expression activities of p53 and mmp2 and significantly block cytochrome-c dependent- caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. Supplementation of glutathione preserved the cellular pool of glutathione and diminishes the oxidative stress involved in ochratoxicosis so indicate to the economic importance of addition of glutathione to animal healthy feeds to overcome the side dangerous effects of ochratoxicosis.


Keywords: Fungi, Ochratoxin (OTA), Animal feeds, Antioxidants, Glutathione (GSH), Alpha Feto Protein (AFP)
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How to cite this article:

Hassan A. Atef, Howayda M. El-Shafei, Mogda K. Mansour, Naglaa M. Al Kalamawy, Nour El-Houda Y. Hassan and Lashin, A.I. 2018. Prevalence of Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Ochratoxin A Residues in Animal Feeds and Modulation of Their Toxic Effects by Glutathione.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(4): 2559-2582. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.704.293