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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39 For more details click here
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS) : NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020) [Effective from January 1, 2020]For more details click here

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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2019)
[Effective from January 1, 2019]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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Original Research Articles

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(3): 3434-3440
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.703.395


Contamination of the Internal Handles/Knobs of Public Restroom Doors with Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria
Shawk Fakhoury and Tarek Nawas*
Natural Sciences Department, Lebanese American University, Beirut – Lebanon
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Microorganisms are present on all surfaces, to which they were carried by many direct and indirect methods of transmission. Regular cleansing of any surface, even using good detergents, will not prohibit organisms from reoccupying these surfaces again and in a very brief period of time. This study aimed at detecting the presence of bacteria on the surfaces of the inside handles/knobs of public restroom doors. Samples collected from doors of 16 public toilets (8 for males and 8 for females) were tested for the presence of bacteria. The results showed that almost all the door handles/knobs (93.8%) were contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria. The following organisms were isolated: Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%), Citrobacter freundii (25%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Rahnellaaquatilis (3.3%), Shigella sonnei (3.3%) and Pantoea sp. (3.3%), indicating that the contamination, most probably, was caused by the hands of the toilet users. It was noted that samples from the males’ restrooms were more contaminated than those from the females’ restrooms and that door handles carried more organisms than door knobs. These results should alert public toilets’ users that extreme caution must be executed while using these toilets, as the internal door handles/knobs, may be a potential source of pathogenic bacteria.


Keywords: Door handles, Door knobs, Public restrooms, Cross infection, Contamination potential pathogens
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How to cite this article:

Shawk Fakhoury and Tarek Nawas. 2018. Contamination of the Internal Handles/Knobs of Public Restroom Doors with Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(3): 3434-3440. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.703.395