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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39 For more details click here
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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Original Research Articles

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(2): 1136-1148
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.702.141


Phytoplasma Effectors and their Role in Plant-Insect Interaction
Uzma Rashid, Sheikh Bilal, K.A. Bhat*, T.A. Shah, T.A. Wani, F.A. Bhat, M.N. Mughal and Nargis Nazir
Division of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture Wadura Sopore, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic prokaryotes lacking cell wall, inhabiting phloem sieve elements in infected plants and have a unique life cycle among pathogens as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely Plantae (plants) and Animalia (insects) and replicate intracellularly in both of them. Effectors are proteins secreted by a microbial pathogen into a host cell to enhance colonization and facilitate multiplication of the pathogens. In plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distant tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. Phytoplasmas have a functional Sec-dependent translocation pathway for the secretion of effectors. Fifty six (56) candidate effectors were identified and named as secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), 45 in OY, 41 in AUSGY, 13 in AP, 25 in MBSP. Among these effectors, only some have been functionally characterized like SAP 11 which enhance insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defence hormone biosynthesis, SAP 54 which induces indeterminate leaf like flower development and discovery of SAP54 is novel as there is no pathogen effector identified tills date that interferes with floral development. Further research on phytoplasma effectors and dissection of plant defense responses that these effectors may target is expected to generate knowledge for the design of novel benign control strategies for phytoplasmas and hemipteran insects.


Keywords: Phytoplasma, Effector, SAPs, SEL
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How to cite this article:

Uzma Rashid, Sheikh Bilal, K.A. Bhat, T.A. Shah, T.A. Wani, F.A. Bhat, M.N. Mughal and Nargis Nazir. 2018. Phytoplasma Effectors and their Role in Plant-Insect Interaction.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(2): 1136-1148. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.702.141