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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2019: 96.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2019 - IJCMAS--ICV 2019: 96.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(10): 2062-2081
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.910.252


Energy Auditing and Carbon Footprint with Diverse Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Management Options in Cereal based Cropping Systems under Conservation Agriculture: A Review
Sharath Chandra1*, R. K. Naresh1, Vivek1, Pradeep Kumar Singh1,Jana Harish2, Pebbeti Chandana3 and K. Shivashankar4
1Department of Agronomy, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, (U.P.), India
2ICAR- Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
4Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Soil is a key compartment for climate regulation as a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and as a sink of carbon. Thus, soil carbon sequestration strategies should be considered alongside reduction strategies for other greenhouse gas emissions. Practicing conservation tillage, residue retention and diverse organic and inorganic fertilizer management options were advocated because of their multiple benefits. Hence we explored the energy requirement and carbon footprint of conservation agriculture (CA) based maize production systems.  ZT and PB plots consumed lower energy in land preparation (49.7-51.5%) and irrigation (16.8-22.9%) compared to CT. Significantly higher system output (10.6-14.5%) and net energy (14.8-18.9%) returns, biomass productivity (9.9-14.1%), energy use-efficiency (13.4-17.1%), and bio-energetic based adult equivalent yield (17.3-19.8%) was recorded in ZT and PB than the CT. Among the crop rotation plots the pooled net energy-output (35, 3346 MJ ha⁻¹), biomass yield (11.87 Mg ha⁻¹), energy use efficiency (4.16), and bio-energetic based adult equivalent yield (46 adults ha⁻¹ year⁻¹) was recorded significantly higher in MWMb plots. The carbon footprint for durum wheat grown after a pulse was 0.25 kg CO2e per kg of the grain and 0.28 kg CO2e per kg of the grain when grown after an oilseed: a reduction in the carbon footprint of 24% to 32% than when grown after a cereal. The application of  chemical fertilizer + FYM at  6 t/ha  to rice-wheat system  produced significantly higher yield  attributes, economic  yield , energy  output  of the  system  and higher carbon  efficiency CE and  net  return over control and sole application of FYM at 6 t/ha. The application of INM with ridge furrow sowing increased available N and P contents in the soil. The adoption of NT-RR significantly reduced the energy use (16,727 MJ/ha) compared with those under CT-RI (27,630MJ/ha. Thus, NT-RR also increased the energy use efficiency (EUE), energy productivity (EP), and reduced carbon footprint (CF) of the system compared with those under CT-RI. Use of different mulches also increased the energy use efficiency and system productivity compared with those under NM. The total CO2-e emission (CF) was higher under CT-RI (2307 kg CO2-e/ha) as compared to those under NT-RR (2013 kg CO2-e/ha). The savings of fossil fuel from less number of tillage operations and also low emissions associated with energy consumed in manufacture, transport, repair and use of machines contributed to the lowest GWP under NT-RR. Thus, the study supports and recommended that the NT-RR with BM is an environmentally safe and clean production technology for enhancing the energy use efficiency, reducing the CF and cost of production of direct-seeded upland rice based cropping system in India and similar agro-eco-regions elsewhere in the rice based cropping system in the world.


Keywords: Carbon footprint, Carbon sequestration, Input energy use, Output energy, Net energy
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How to cite this article:

Sharath Chandra, M., R. K. Naresh, Vivek, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Jana Harish, Pebbeti Chandana and Shivashankar, K. 2020. Energy Auditing and Carbon Footprint with Diverse Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Management Options in Cereal based Cropping Systems under Conservation Agriculture: A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(10): 2062-2081. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.910.252