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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(8): 676-690
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.908.074


Crop Establishment with Conservation Tillage on Viable Weed Seed Density and Diversity in Soil, Crop and Water Productivity under RWCS in North-West IGP: A Review
Shivangi1*, Vivek1, R. K. Naresh1, D. K. Singh1 and P. K. Singh2
1Department of Agronomy, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, U. P., India
2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sonbhadra, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture And Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, U.P., India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

The rice–wheat cropping system in the North West IGP is the backbone of food security in India. In the 1990s, due to the scarcity of resources, the traditional Crop Establishment (CE) method shifted from Conventional Till Puddle Transplanted Rice (CTPTR) to CT Direct Seeded Rice (CTDSR) and Zero-Till DSR (ZTDSR) in paddy; and in wheat, from Conventional Till Wheat (CTW) to Zero Till Wheat (ZTW), with residue retention in rice (RRR) or in both rice and wheat (RRRW). Shift in CE methods led to change in Weed Seed Bank (WSB) dynamics and ultimately affected the weed management practices. Review study showed that CTPTR-CTW and ZTDSR-ZTW (RRRW) record the highest seed bank (SB) of grasses, sedges and BLWs as total weeds, in general; and predominant weeds i.e., Echinochloa spp., Ammania baccifera, Commelina benghalensis and Digitaria sanguinalis, in particular. It also showed the higher species richness (DMg) and Shannon–Weaver (H’) indices. CTDSR-CTW and CTDSR-ZTW (RRR) show the lowest WSB and at par with Shannon–Weaver (H’) index; further, lowest species richness (DMg) under CTDSR-CTW. The average yield losses caused by weeds in different wheat growing zones ranged from 20 to 32%. Uncontrolled weeds in wheat caused 60.5% reduction in wheat grain yield under CT and 70% in ZT conditions. Potential solutions include a shift from intensive tillage to no or reduced tillage and/or from transplanting to direct-seeding. Zero tillage ameliorates the problem of delayed sowing as well as reduces weeds like Phalaris minor in wheat. Adoption of conservation agricultural practices reduces the intensity of soil manipulation thereby creates an unfavorable condition for weed seed germination, reduces the organic matter depletion and soil degradation. Reducing tillage may shift weed communities from annual dicots to grassy annuals and perennials. Surface residues lower average soil temperatures and may delay emergence of both crops and weeds. Germination and growth of small-seeded annuals will suffer from restricted light availability, physical growth barriers and potential allelopathic effects from surface of irrigation water, but with an associated yield loss of 14 to 25%. Nevertheless, water use efficiency (WUE) in the residue. Compared with conventional puddled transplanting; direct seeding of rice on raised beds had a 13 to 23% savings rice wheat system was higher with direct seeded rice (0.45 g L−1) than with transplanted rice (0.37-0.43 g L−1). Moreover, CT-TPR system, zero till direct-seeded rice (ZT-DSR) consumed 6%-10% less water with almost equal system productivity and demonstrated higher water pro-ductility.


Keywords: Population dynamics, Tillage systems, Weed diversity indices
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How to cite this article:

Shivangi, Vivek, R. K. Naresh, D. K. Singh and Singh, P. K. 2020. Crop Establishment with Conservation Tillage on Viable Weed Seed Density and Diversity in Soil, Crop and Water Productivity under RWCS in North-West IGP: A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(8): 676-690. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.908.074