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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2019)
[Effective from January 1, 2019]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(6): 3424-3457
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.906.406


Pandemic of Infectious Diseases due to New Etiological Agents Predisposing Factors, Case study of COVID19 and Control Measures
Neha Pant and R. S. Chauhan*
Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences G B Pant University of Agri. & Tech.Pantnagar-263145 Uttarakhand, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Today the whole world is in an endeavor to deal with a newly arrived pandemic, COVID-19 which has all the potential to be catastrophic to mankind at its worst. This is not new; the world faced many pandemics earlier. According to the WHO, the worldwide spread of a new disease is called a pandemic that is if an infection becomes widespread in several countries at the same time, it may turn into a pandemic. Pandemic may be a result of new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen/parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognised infection or disease or due to a known or endemic disease that either shifts its geographical setting or expands its host range, or significantly increases its prevalence. Whenever a new bacterial or viral strain is formed or the existing ones undergoes genetic variation due to mutation like genetic shift, genetic drift or genetic reassortment and have a capability of rapid transmission and infecting large population then they have a potential to cause pandemic. Man has constantly altered its ecosystem by its activities. Tracing of the origins of emerging infectious diseases back to first emergence in the human population, lead to the revelation of some distinctive patterns. There are a number of agents present in the environment to which our body is exposed all the time. Not everyone exposed to these agents develops disease. Immunity is a major factor that governs susceptibility of individual towards any disease and thus governs health. People with low immunity are very susceptible to any disease and even a mild disease can take severe form in such individuals while people with strong immune system are comparatively resistant to infection. In today’s scenario, the lifestyle of people is exposing them to various chemicals in a way that now chemicals are part and partial of our life, be it flavoring agents, food colours, skin lotions, cleansers, disinfectants, fertilizers, pesticides, medicines, washing powder or soaps etc. Many of these chemicals either singly or in combination are proved to be a major cause behind the decreased immunity of people now days. As people around the globe are exposed to such chemicals around the clock hence it may be a major cause of mass immunosuppression. Due to which population immunity goes down and the resistance towards coming infection decreases hence they become susceptible to coming infection. This may be a major cause of an endemic disease firstly becoming epidemic then pandemic as well as a possible reason behind progression of any novel infection within the population. Being too clean might be making us sick due to development of immunologically virgin population. Even the obsessive washing of hands and excessive hygienic measures because may result in developing immunologically virgin population which is not exposed to the environment. For containment of any pandemic an amalgamation of rapid diagnosis, prevention and control, case management i.e. treatment and mass vaccination is required. Because of their changing antigenic type vaccine development is strenuous job. Additionally, it has been proved now beyond any doubt that the allopathic system of medicine alone may not be able to control any such pandemic or epidemic. It includes ayurveda which gives prime importance to prophylaxis. Ayurveda have several strong points in preventive care like scope of prevention is very large, no or very minimum side or after ill effects are seen. It also includes cowpathy which is an age old system of medicine described in ancient Indian literature and also known as ‘Panchgavya Chikitsa”. In order to reduce the immunodeficiency, some of the nutrients like vitamins, roughages, antioxidants, lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Ionophores, Carotenoids, Bioflavenoids, Omega-3 fatty acids, etc. and crude preparations of some microorganisms are also used which are necessary for the development of the body to improve the nonspecific and specific immunity. There is a need to explore novel therapeutic approach like convalescent plasma treatment which has been shown to be effective in treatment of COVID-19, swine influenza, SARS etc. The pandemics we have experienced so far have shown a number of deficiencies and defects, including vulnerabilities in global, national, and local public health capacities; difficulties in decision making under conditions of uncertainty; limitations of scientific knowledge; complexities in international cooperation; and challenges in communication among experts, policymakers, and the public. Pandemics can be contained only by an amalgamation of rapid diagnosis, prevention, control, case management and mass vaccination. Global surveillance of emerging and previously unknown infections in both human beings and other species should be done. Preparation beyond planning, with advance protocols and agreements, the commitment of ready reserves of public health experts and a financial line of credit, and the fulfillment of the international health regulation requirements can all help. Besides, the known therapeutic and preventive measures in our own traditional system and are proven on the standards of the modern scientific parameters must be used instantly without any doubt and wasting time in further research in order to save the population at large and minimize their sufferings.


Keywords: Pandemics, Environmental issues, Immunity, immunodeficiency, COVID19, Control measures, Preparedness for new eventuality
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How to cite this article:

Neha Pant and Chauhan, R. S. 2020. Pandemic of Infectious Diseases due to New Etiological Agents Predisposing Factors, Case study of COVID19 and Control Measures.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(6): 3424-3457. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.906.406