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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39 For more details click here
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2019)
[Effective from January 1, 2019]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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Original Research Articles

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(4): 48-63
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.904.008


Adverse Effects of Chromium, Cadmium and Zinc on the Growth and Metabolic Activities of Pulse Crops and their Key Management Strategies: A Review
Srabani Kar and Ravindra Prasad*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, (India)
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Pulse crops are an integral part of Indian agricultural economy next to the cereals and oilseeds in terms of production, productivity and economic value. These crops are richest source of protein and energy but in India such crops are largely cultivated under energy starved and polluted conditions, resulting affecting the metabolic activity and limiting the yield. Agricultural soil contaminated by heavy metals becomes a severe environmental issue in this day due to its potential adverse ecological effects. Crop plants faced oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals and metalloids which leads to cellular damage. Chromium, Cadmium and Zinc are widely used in industrial purpose and considered as very dangerous environmental pollutants that contaminates soil and water. In the nature, Chromium exists in two valence forms viz., Cr3+ and Cr6+, chromite mineral which is mainly composed of Cr6+ is more toxic and mobile than Cr3+. Cadmium belongs to the first class of dangerous goods in terms of environmental risk, toxicity, mobility and the ability to accumulate in food chain. Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for optimum growth of crop plants but it plays toxic role to plants when present in soil at elevated concentration. Polluted soil has posed a serious issue to sustainable agriculture and human health worldwide; its affects the plant growth and enzymatic activities as well. Metabolic hindrances by chromium have also been described in crops by direct effect of enzymes and by producing ROS may cause oxidative stress. Phytoremediation has received a great deal of attention in recent years which include phytoextraction, phytostabilization, rhizoļ¬ltration and phytovolatilization considered a promising, energy and cost effective way to rehabilitate metal-contaminated environments. In addition, the use of tolerance genotypes against metals toxic soil is one of the key eco-friendly approaches to enhance the yield of pulse crops. 


Keywords: Oxidative stress, Sustainable agriculture, Micronutrient, Phytoremediation, Heavy metals, Pulse crops
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How to cite this article:

Srabani Kar and Ravindra Prasad. 2020. Adverse Effects of Chromium, Cadmium and Zinc on the Growth and Metabolic Activities of Pulse Crops and their Key Management Strategies: A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(4): 48-63. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.904.008