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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
IJCMAS is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCMAS Articles.
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39 For more details click here
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2020)
[Effective from January 1, 2020]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2018 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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Original Research Articles

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcmas@gmail.com / submit@ijcmas.com
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(2): 2726-2739
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.902.310


Plant Genetic Control of Nodulation and its Utilization in Nitrogen Fixation - A Review
M. Ramesh Kanna*
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Nitrogen is one of the most important major limiting nutrients for most crops and other plant species. Nitrogen fertilizers affect the balance of the global nitrogen cycle, pollute groundwater and increase atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent "greenhouse" gas. The production of nitrogen fertilizer by industrial nitrogen fixation not only depletes our finite reserves of fossil fuels but also generates large quantities of carbon dioxide, contributing to global warming. The process of biological nitrogen fixation offers an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external nitrogen input and improving the quality and quantity of internal resources. Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) is an ecologically important phenomenon that can support an amount of nitrogen to compensate for the deficiencies of this element and legumes are mostly involved in the BNF process. Legumes can form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. The establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or form nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen. Genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate symbiotic specificity are diverse, involving a wide range of host and bacterial genes signals with various modes of action. More work is needed on the genes responsible for rhizobia and legumes, the structural chemical bases of rhizobia legume communication, and signal transduction pathways responsible for the symbiosis-specific genes involved in nodule development and nitrogen fixation.


Keywords: Legume, nodulation, nitrogen fixation, rhizobial symbiosis, nod factor
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How to cite this article:

Ramesh Kanna. M. 2020. Plant Genetic Control of Nodulation and its Utilization in Nitrogen Fixation - A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(2): 2726-2739. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.902.310