International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2019)
[Effective from January 1, 2019]
For more details click here

ICV 2018: 95.39
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2018: 95.39
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
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Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2020.9(1): 748-762

The Evolutionary Path from C3 to C4 Photosynthesis: A Review
Priyanka Upadhyay1*, Neha Agrawal1, Praveen Kumar Yadav2 and Ruby Patel3
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab India, 141004
2Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India
3Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalya, Mohanpura, Nadia West Bengal India, 741252
*Corresponding author

The C4 photosynthetic carbon cycle can be explained as the elaborated addition to the C3 photosynthetic pathway. It is a unique series of biochemical, anatomical and regulatory gene characteristics that concentrate CO2around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco, thereby increasing photosynthetic efficiency during high rates of photorespiration. The C4 photosynthetic pathway has evolved as an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness, therefore in the warmer climates of the tropical and subtropical dominating the grassland floras and biomass production. C4 photosynthesis originated more than 40 times independently during angiosperm evolution in over 15 families of angiosperms, representing convergent evolutionary phenomena. Probably, C4 grasses evolved in the early Oligocene about 30 million years ago, while later appeared C4 dicots, less than 20 million years ago. Low atmospheric CO2 is pivotal factor forC3- C4 transition, because it is required for high rates of photorespiration. Consistently, the increasing global aridification and declining atmospheric CO2 coincides with periods of the appearance of C4plants. Genetically, leading mechanism for creation of C4 genome is duplications of whole genomes, genome segments, or single genes followed by non-functionalization and neo-functionalization with selection for carbon conservation traits under high photorespiration promoting conditions being the ultimate factor behind the origin of C4 photosynthesis.

Keywords: C4 photosynthetic pathway, C3-C4transition, photorespiration, genome duplications, Rubisco
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How to cite this article:

Priyanka Upadhyay, Neha Agrawal, Praveen Kumar Yadav and Ruby Patel. 2020. The Evolutionary Path from C3 to C4 Photosynthesis: A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(1): 748-762. doi: