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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
NAAS Score: *5.38 (2019)
[Effective from January 1, 2019]
For more details click here

ICV 2017: 100.00
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2017: 100.00
For more details click here

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PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
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Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 100.00
NAAS RATING 2018: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2019.8(7): 2633-2640
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.807.324


Nipah Virus (Niv): 21st Century Novel Emerging Zoonotic Virus with Pandemic Potential
R. Manikandan1, M. Dinesh2, E. Kalaiselvan3, V. Chandran4, V. Praveen5, S. Shanmuganathan1* and E. Madhesh6
1Veterinary Virology, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Veterinary Pathology, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Veterinary Surgery, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
4Veterinary Parasitology, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
5Veterinary Physiology, Veterinary College, Bangaluru-560024, Karnataka, India
6Division of Medicine, ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) whose wildlife reservoir is bats of the genus Pteropus. The emergence of pandemic potential of NiV is due to the fact that one or more pigs were infected from bats, and the virus then spread efficiently from pig to pig, then from pigs to people. Characteristics of Nipah virus that increase its risk of becoming a global pandemic includes: humans are already susceptible; many strains are capable of limited person-to-person transmission; as an RNA virus, it has an exceptionally high rate of mutation and that if a human-adapted strain were to infect communities, high population densities and global interconnectedness would rapidly spread the NiV. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NiV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. It is apparent from the presence of the virus and antibodies in the fruit bats of the region and 13 years of continuous NiV outbreaks in humans in Bangladesh that it is the potential threat to the Indian subcontinent. The present century of NiV epidemic reported in Kozhikode and Malappuram district of Kerala last year. NiV haunts one more epidemic in the Ernakulam district of Kerala this year. Due to the lack of vaccines and effective antivirals, Nipah encephalitis poses a great threat to public health. This paper describes the potential of Nipah virus to cause an expanding pandemic threat, epidemiological patterns observed to date and suggests measures that should be taken for surveillance, provide early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities, prevention and infection control


Keywords: Nipah virus, Pteropus, NiV outbreaks, Pandemic threat
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How to cite this article:

Manikandan, R., M. Dinesh, E. Kalaiselvan, V. Chandran, V. Praveen, S. Shanmuganathan and Madhesh, E. 2019. Nipah Virus (Niv): 21st Century Novel Emerging Zoonotic Virus with Pandemic Potential.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 8(7): 2633-2640. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.807.324