International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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Original Research Articles                      Volume : 8, Issue:5, May, 2019

PRINT ISSN : 2319-7692
Online ISSN : 2319-7706
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : /
Editor-in-chief: Dr.M.Prakash
Index Copernicus ICV 2018: 95.39
NAAS RATING 2020: 5.38

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2019.8(5): 80-90

Toxoplasma gondii Infection Delays the Onset and Decreases the Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Programmed Death-1 Mediated Mechanism
Shaimaa Ahmed Sharaf El-Deen1*, Reham Mustafa Brakat1,2, Reem Mohsen EL-Kholy3, Dalia Salah Saif4 and Shaimaa Sherif Soliman5
1Parasitology Department
3Clinical Pathology Department
4Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department
5Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt
2Biomedical Science Department, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, KSA
*Corresponding author

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disorder that affects around 1% of the world’s population. The associating morbidity extends out of the joints to involve many vital organs in addition to increased mortality rates. Environmental infections are one of the accused elements to be a risk factor for RA. The relationship between RA and toxoplasmosis was a point of controversy where most of the human studies reported either absent or positive correlation. They usually linked toxoplasmosis to suppressed immunity by the drugs used for RA treatment which enhances activation of latent infections. The current work studied the actual effect of toxoplasmosis on RA by excluding the immune-suppressive action of drugs. The studied population was all newly diagnosed cases who did not start RA treatment. We also studied the effect of programmed death-1, PD-1 (which is overexpressed in chronic toxoplasmosis) on RA severity. We recorded a higher age of onset and decreased severity markers of RA in toxoplasmosis positive patients. The higher lymphocytic PD-1 expression that associated toxoplasmosis was negatively correlated to RA severity. We concluded that toxoplasmosis delayed onset of RA and decreased its severity. These effects can be related to the toxoplasmosis associated increase in lymphocytic PD-1 expression.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Toxoplasmosis, Programmed death-1, Immunomodulation

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How to cite this article:

Sharaf El-Deen, S.A., R.M. Brakat, R.M. El-Kholy, D.S. Saif, Soliman, S.A. 2019. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Delays the Onset and Decreases the Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Programmed Death-1 Mediated Mechanism.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 8(5): 80-90. doi:
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