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International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (IJCMAS)
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NAAS Score: *5.38 (2017)
[Effective from January 1, 2017]
For more details click here

ICV 2017: 100.00
Index Copernicus ICI Journals Master List 2017 - IJCMAS--ICV 2017: 100.00
For more details click here
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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018.7(11): 3573-3600
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.711.410


Soil Organic Carbon Fractions, Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, and Enzyme Activities Impacted by Crop Rotational Diversity and Conservation Tillage in North West IGP: A Review
Mayank Chaudhary, R. K. Naresh, Vivek, D. K. Sachan, Rehan, N.C. Mahajan, Lali Jat, Richa Tiwari and Abhisekh Yadav
1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of
Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, U.P., India
2Department of Agronomy, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, U.P., India
3K.V.K. Ghaziabad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, U.P., India
4Department of Horticulture, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, U.P., India
5Institute of Agricultural Science, Department of Agronomy, Banaras Hindu University, Varansi- 221005,U.P., India
6Department of Entamology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, U.P., India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and its fractions (labile and non-labile) including particulate organic carbon (POC) and its components [coarse POC and fine POC], light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are important for sustainability of any agricultural production system as they govern most of the soil properties, and hence soil quality and health. Being a food source for soil microorganisms, they also affect microbial activity, diversity and enzymes activities. The content of OC within WSA followed the sequence: medium-aggregates (1.0–0.25 mm and 1.0–2.0 mm)> macro-aggregates (4.76–2.0 mm)> micro-aggregates (0.25–0.053 mm) >large aggregates (4.76 mm) >silt+ clay fractions (<0.053 mm). The highest levels of MBC were associated with the 1.0–2.0 mm aggregate size class. The Cmic/Corg was greatest for the large macro-aggregates regardless of tillage regimes. The tillage treatments significantly influenced soil aggregate stability and OC distribution. Higher MWD and GMD were observed in plowing every 2 years (2TS), plowing every 4 years (4TS) and no plowing (NTS) as compared to plowing every year without residue (T). With increasing soil depth, the amount of macro-aggregates and MWD and GMD values were increased, while the proportions of micro-aggregates and the silt+ clay fraction were declined. The OC concentrations in different aggregate fractions at all soil depths followed the order of macro-aggregates>micro-aggregates>silt+ clay fraction. In the 0-5 cm soil layer, concentrations of macro-aggregate-associated OC in 2TS, 4TS and NTS were 14, 56 and 83% higher than for T, whereas T had the greatest concentration of OC associated with the silt+ clay fraction in the 10-20 cm layer. Tillage regimes that contribute to greater aggregation also improved soil microbial activity. Soil OC and MBC were at their highest levels for 1.0–2.0 mm aggregates, suggesting a higher biological activity at this aggregate size for the ecosystem. Compared with CT treatments, NT treatments increased MBC by11.2%, 11.5%, and 20%, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by 15.5% 29.5%, and 14.1% of bulk soil, >0.25 mm aggregate, and <0.25 mm aggregate in the 0−5 cm soil layer, respectively. The portion of 0.25–2 mm aggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) of aggregates from ST and NT treatments were larger than from CT at both 0–15- and 15–30-cm soil depths. Positive significant correlations were observed between SOC, labile organic C fractions, MWD, GMD, and macro-aggregate (0.25–2 mm) C within the upper 15 cm. The arylsulfatase, β-glucosaminidase and α-glucosidase activities showed a significant increase in the enzyme activities due to crop rotations in comparison to continuous mono-cropping. The activities of chitinase, leucine amino-peptidase and tyrosine aminopeptidase) in the topsoil layer were higher under conservation agriculture (CA).Moreover, compared with CT, the ZT and FIRB treatments significantly increased nitrifying [Gn] and denitrifying bacteria [D] by 77%, 229%, and 3.03%, 2.37%, respectively. The activity of phosphatase tended to be higher in the FIRB treatment compared to the ZT and CT treatments. In conclusion, soil organic carbon fractions (SOC), microbial biomasses and enzyme activities in the macro-aggregates are more sensitive to conservation tillage (CT) than in the micro-aggregates. Soil aggregation regulates the distributions of SOC and microbial parameters under CT in North West IGP.


Keywords: Microbial biomass, Enzyme activities, Tillage, Soil organic matter, Soil aggregates
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How to cite this article:

Mayank Chaudhary, R. K. Naresh, Vivek, D. K. Sachan, Rehan, N. C. Mahajan, Lali Jat, Richa Tiwari and Abhisekh Yadav. 2018. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions, Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, and Enzyme Activities Impacted by Crop Rotational Diversity and Conservation Tillage in North West IGP: A Review.Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(11): 3573-3600. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.711.410